ทฤษฎีความเจริญเติบโตทางเศรษฐกิจตามลำดับขั้น(The Stages of Economic Growth Theory)

         ผู้เสนอคนสำคัญของทฤษฎีนี้ ได้แก่ Rostow นักเศรษฐศาสตร์ชาวสหรัฐฯ โดยทฤษฎีนี้เห็นว่าสังคมในฐานะเป็นระบบหนึ่ง มีการพัฒนาเป็นลำดับขั้นไป ประเทศอุตสาหกรรม เช่น อังกฤษ กว่าจะเป็นประเทศทันสมัยได้ก็ต้องผ่านการพัฒนาไปเป็นลำดับ ประเทศกำลังพัฒนาที่ยังไม่ทันสมัย ถ้าหากใช้ความพยายามในการพัฒนาก็จะก้าวสู่ความทันสมัยเป็นลำดับขั้นไปได้เช่นกัน การพัฒนาของ Rostow มีอยู่ 5 ขั้นด้วยกัน คือ

          1) ขั้นระบบเศรษฐกิจสังคมเป็นแบบดั้งเดิม (The traditional society) คือ ระยะที่ความเจริญทางวิทยาศาสตร์และเทคโนโลยียังไม่ก้าวหน้า โครงสร้างทางสังคมยังแบ่งเป็นชนชั้นต่าง ๆ สาขาเกษตรเป็นสาขาหลักของระบบเศรษฐกิจ

          2) ขั้นเตรียมการพัฒนา (The pre-conditions for take-off) คือ ระยะที่สังคมมีการสร้างทุนพื้นฐานอย่างกว้างขวาง การปฏิวัติและการขยายตัวทางการเกษตรมีการขยายตัว

           3) ขั้นเข้าสู่กระบวนการพัฒนา (Take-off stage) คือ ระยะที่มีการเพิ่มขึ้นของการลงทุน มีการพัฒนาสาขาอุตสาหกรรมการผลิตเป็นสาขานำ  อัตราการเจริญเติบโตค่อนข้างสูง

          4) ขั้นการทะยานตัวเข้าสู่วุฒิภาวะของการพัฒนา (Drive to maturity) คือ ระยะที่สังคมมีการประยุกต์เทคโนโลยีแผนใหม่ มีการจัดสรรและใช้ทรัพยากรอย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ แรงงานมีฝีมือ มีการจัดการที่มีประสิทธิภาพและสังคมต้องการสิ่งใหม่ ๆ เพื่อนำไปสู่การเปลี่ยนแปลงต่อไป

          5) ขั้นอุดมสมบูรณ์ (Stage of high mass consumption) ระยะที่ประชาชนมีการบริโภคอย่างอุดมสมบูรณ์ครบถ้วน มีสภาพการจ้างงานเต็มที่ ประชาชนรู้สึกมั่นคง

           ทฤษฎีของ Rostow นี้ ไม่อาจเป็นบรรทัดฐานได้แน่นอนว่า ทุกประเทศจะต้องมีการพัฒนาทางเศรษฐกิจเป็นขั้น ๆ เพราะแต่ละประเทศมีสภาพแวดล้อม โครงสร้างและประวัติศาสตร์ความเป็นชาติต่างกัน สิ่งที่ประเทศกำลังพัฒนากำลังแสวงหาในปัจจุบัน ไม่ใช่การพัฒนาจากขั้นหนึ่งไปอีกขั้นหนึ่ง แต่เป็นการหาทางลัดในการพัฒนามากกว่า เพื่อให้ทันประเทศที่พัฒนาแล้วได้

edit @ 5 Feb 2011 11:58:56 by watcharin

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